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Know about Endocrinology

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that deals with hormone and glands that produce  hormones.

1. Pancreatic gland

  • Diabetes (due to defect in insulin hormone secretion by beta cells of pancreas)
  • Hypoglycemia (due to various factors that tilt body balance towards low sugar)
  • Glucagonoma (condition producing low sugars due to increased production of a hormone called glucagon)

2. Thyroid

  • Hypothyroidism (caused by various reasons that reduce thyroid hormone production)
  • Hyperthyroidism ( multiple diseases that cause increased level of thyroid hormones in the body)
  • Goitre (swelling of thyroid, could be due single or multiple nodules)
  • Thyroid tumors (could be benign or cancerous)
  • Pregnancy fluctuations (a very common problem in pregnancy, where some require treatment while others can be left alone).
  • Congenital Thyroid diseases ( thyroid fluctuations that appear at birth, if not properly treated could lead to defective brain development)

3. Metabolic Diseases

  • Obesity (could be related to lifestyle, heredity or even due to hormone fluctuations)
  • Sudden weight loss (again could be related to altered hormone balance)
  • Dyslipidemia (Various diseases that result in altered cholesterol patterns)
  • Childhood Obesity ( could be due to various reasons including lifestyle, genetic, hormonal problems)

4. Ovary

  • PCOD (Polycystic ovary disease)
  • Hypogonadism (reduced female hormones leading to reduced menstrual periods)
  • Hirsutism (Excess hair growth due to various hormonal excess and imbalances)
  • Infertility (that result from hormone imbalance)
  • Irregular Menstrual Periods (resulting from female hormone imbalances)

5. Testis

  • Hypogonadism (Low male hormone level)
  • Erectile Dysfunction (sexual problems related to hormone imbalance)
  • Infertility & Low sperm count (related to hormone imbalance)
  • Lack of facial hair (due to reduced male hormones or excess blocking hormones)
  • Micropenis ( reduced penile size)
  • Cryptorchidism ( Absence of one or both of testis in its normal position)

6. Pituitary (the master gland)

  • Hypopituitarism ( conditions producing low level of pituitary hormones)
  • Acromegaly ( caused by excess growth hormone)
  • Cushing (produced excess amount of steroid hormone)
  • Prolactinemia (condition produced by excess prolactin hormone)
  • Pituitary Adenoma (Tumor of pituitary)

7. Adrenal

  • Adrenal Insufficiency/ Addison’s disease (due to lack steroid hormones in body)
  • Pheochromocytoma ( caused by excess stress hormones)
  • Hyperaldosteronism/ Conn’s disease (caused by excess level of aldosterone in body)
  • Adrenal Tumour ( swelling of adrenal which could be benign or cancerous)

8. Parathyroid & Vitamin D

  • Osteoporosis (fragile bone disease)
  • Hyperparathyroidism ( caused by excess parathyroid hormone)
  • Hypoparathyroidism (due to deficiency of parathyroid hormone)
  • Vitamin D Deficiency

9. Pediatric Endocrine Diseases ( Hormone diseases in children)

  • Congenital/ Acquired Hypothyroidism
  • Growth Hormone deficiency
  • Delayed Puberty
  • Early Puberty
  • Ambiguous Genitalia (abnormalities in female or male external sex organ appearance)
  • Rickets (Bowing of legs)
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia ( life threatening disease due to defective adrenal hormone production )

10. Genetic Diseases

  • Prader Willi Syndrome
  • Turners Syndrome
  • Klinefelter’s Syndrome

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